Thirty Patients with nonresectable hepatocellular carcinoma(HCC) doe to either locally advanced lesion or association with liver cirrhosis, treated with combined radiotherapy and hyperthermia between April 1988 and July 1988, at Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Yonsei university College of medicine, were analysed. External radiotherapy of a total dose of 3060 cGy/3.5 wks was given. Hyperthermia was given twice a week with a total of 6 treatment sessions using 8 MHz radiofrequency capacitive type heating device, i.e., Thermotron RF-8 and Cancermia. In all cases hyperthermia was given within 30 minutes after radiotherapy for 30~60 min. Temperature was measured by inserting thermocouple into the tumor mass under the ultrasonographic guidance only for those who had not bleeding tendency. As a result, partial response(PR) was achieved in 12 patients (40%), and symptomatic improvement was observe in 22 patients (78.0%) among 28 patients who had suffered from abdominal pain. The most significant factor affecting the tumor response rate was the type of tumor (single massive: 10/14, 71.4%; diffuse infiltrative: 2/10, 20%; multinodular: 0/0.6%;p<0.005). There were not any significant side effects relating to combined treatment. The overall 1 year survival rate was 34%, with 50% in the PR group and 22% in the no response group(NR), respectively. Median survival was 6.5 months and longer for those of PR than of NR (11 mos. vs 5, p<0.05). In conclusion, combined radiotherapy and hyperthermia appeared to be effective in local control and symptomatic palliation of HCC. Further study including a larger number of the patients to confirm its effect in survival and detrimental side effect should be urged.