During the period between March 1979 and August 1986, 177 patients with carcinoma of the esophagus were treated with radiotherapy in the Department of Therapeutic Radiology, SNUH. Among these, 25 patients who had incomplete treatment were excluded. So a retrospective analysis was undertaken of 152 patients who were treated by curative radiotherapy. More than 80% showed response: Complete remission (22%), partial remission (63%) and no response (15%). The overall two-year and five-year actuarial survival rate were 22.9% and 13.3% respectively. Prognostic factor was analyzed by it site, size, T stage, and tumor response. Patients with the best five-year survival rate were those who had the tumor no more than 5 cm in length (17%) or confined to the upper third of the esophagus (26.6%). Complete responders had 34.3% of 5-year actuarial survival, but no responders had 0% of survival.