The synergistic effect of combining radiation therapy and hyperthermia kills significantly more cells than using either modality alone. The reason for enhanced cell killing from the combined treatment is that the two modalities are complementary. For histopathological exmination, 102 rats were divided into 4 groups as hyperthermia, radiation, hyperthermia combined with radiation and normal control groups. The effect of prior irradiation (6-15 Gy of X-ray) on the response of small and large bowel of rats to 40degree C-44degree C (for 30 minutes) microwave (2450 MHz) hyperthermia was investigated. The musculature of the small and large intestine remained intact and the circumference of the histological sections were not significantly altered by the heated at 43degree C for 30 minutes. Thermal enhancement ratios of normal tissue is 1.0. Thermal enhancement ratio was not increased in combination therapy by evaluation of histopathologic changes in small and large intestine.