To evaluate the usefulness of computed tomography (CT) in radiotherapy treatment planning in malignant tumors of thoracic cage, the computer generated dose distributions were compared between plans based on conventional studies and those based on CT scan. 22 cases of thoracic malignancies, 15 lung cancers and 7 esophageal cancers, diagnosed and treated in Department of Therapeutic Radiology of Seoul National University Hospital from September, 1982 to April, 1983, were analyzed. In lung cancer, dose distribution in plans using AP, PA parallel opposing ports with posterior spinal cord block and in plans using box technique both based on conventional studies were compared with dose distribution using AP, PA and two oblique ports based on CT scan. On esophageal cancers, dose distribution in plans based on conventional studies and those based on CT scans, both using 3 port technique were compared. The results are as follows: 1. Parallel opposing field technique were inadequate in all cases of lung cancers, as portion of primary tumor in 13 of 15 cases and portion of mediastinum in all were out of high dose volume. 2. Box technique was inadequate in 5 of 15 lung cancers as portion of primary tumor was not covered and in every case the irradiated normal lung volume was quite large. 3. Plans based on CT scan were superior to those based on conventional studies as tumor was demarcated better with CT and so complete coverage of tumor and preservation of more normal lung volume could be made. 4. In 1 case of lung cancer, tumor localization was nearly impossible with conventional studies, but after CT scan tumor was more clearly defined and localized.