PURPOSE: To compare the differential radiologic findings of renal cell carcinoma presenting as a homogeneous solid mass (HS-RCC) and muscle-predominant angiomyolipoma (MP-AML). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Nine of 76 surgically and pathologically proven RCCs presenting at CT or magnetic resonance (MR) imaging as a homogeneous solid mass, and four cases of MP-AML were included in this study. Echogenicity at sonography, attenuation at non-enhanced CT (NECT), the contour of the mass, signal intensities at T1- and T2-weighted MR imaging, the existence of a capsule, and the pattern and degree of enhancement at CT and MR imaging were retrospectively analyzed. RESULTS: Two of five HS-RCCs were isoechoic and three were hyperechoic. Two of three MP-AMLs, however, were isoechoic, and one was mixed echoic. All nine HS-RCCs were round or oval in shape, but three MPAMLs were lobulated and one was round. At NECT, seven of eight HS-RCCs were isodense and one was hypodense compared to surrounding normal renal parenchyme, but three MP-AMLs were hyperdense masses and one was isodense. At enhanced CT, HS-RCCs showed various degrees of homogeneous enhancement, but all MP-AMLs showed moderate homogeneous enhancement. All three MP-AMLs demonstrated heterogeneous hypointensity at T2-weighted MRI and homogeneous hypointensity at T1-weighted MRI. HS-RCCs showed various signal intensities at both T1- and T2-weighted MRI, and in five cases, heterogeneous high signal intensity at T2-weighted MRI. Capsules were observed in seven of nine HS-RCCs but not in any of the three MP-AMLs. At enhanced T1-weighted MRI, MP-AMLs showed mild to moderate enhancement, but HSRCCs showed mild, moderate, and strong enhancement in two, two, and five cases, respectively. CONCLUSION: Echogenicity, density at NECT, signal intensity at MR T2-WI, the contour of the mass, and the existence of a capsule are features which are useful in the differential diagnosis of HS-RCC and MP-AML.