PURPOSE: To evaluate the usefulness of percutaneous management and prognosis in venous rupture during angioplasty of hemodialytic arteriovenous fistulas. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Among 814 patients who underwent angioplasty on account of inadequate hemodialysis, 63[39 women and 24 men aged 20-78 (mean, 55.8) years] were included in this study. All 63 had peripheral venous stenosis. Venous rupture was diagnosed when contrast leakage was seen at venography after percutaneous angioplasty (PTA). In order to manage venous rupture, the sites at which this occurred were compressed manually for 3-5 minutes or blood flow was blocked with a balloon catheter for the same period. In one case, a stent was inserted at the rupture site. Using the Kaplan-Meier method, we investigated the patency rate of arteriovenous fistula (AVF) in cases of successful PTA. We also compared PTA patency rates in cases with and without peripheral venous rupture. RESULTS: Venous rupture occurred in 38 cephalic, 16 brachial, and 9 basilic veins. In 63 patients, bleeding stopped and in 54 (85.7%) of these, PTA was successful. Among the nine failed cases, dilatation was incomplete in five, though bleeding had stopped. In patients with brachial and cephalic vein rupture, the venous tract at the rupture site was not located. Two patients underwent surgery: one of these experienced brachial venous rupture, with incontrollable bleeding, and the other had nerve compression symptoms due to hematoma. Among 54 patients in whom PTA was successful, the primary and secondary six-month rates for angioaccess were 47.9% and 81.2%, and the mean patency period was 6.1 and 15.8 months, respectively. In cases of non-venous rupture, the mean patency period was 9.6 months, significantly longer than in cases involving venous rupture (p=0.02). CONCLUSION: Venous rupture occurring during the PTA of hemodialytic AVF can be managed percutaneously.