PURPOSE: To describe the associated conditions and clinical significance of lenticulostriate uasculopathy (LSV) as demonstrated by cranial sonography. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively studied 77 LSV cases who between January 1994 and January 1996 had undergone cranial sonography for neonatal asphyxia, seizure, or bulging of anterior fontanel. Cranial sonography was performed with 7 MHz real-time linear and sector transducers using an Acuson computed sonography unit ; examinations were performed in sagittal and coronal planes. Twenty-six LSV patients underwent color Doppler studies, and in 24 of these, color signal and arterial pulse spectral wave were detected. LSV was grouped as one of three types, according to echogenicity : type I (less echogenic than sylvian fissure), type II (similar to sylvian fissure), and type III (more echogenic than sylvian fissures). We retrospectively evaluated associated sonographic abnormalities of the brain, and reviewed medical records for associated conditions and neurologic sequelae. Follow-up sonographic examinations were performed in 23 patients. RESULTS: There were 56 type I cases (73 %), 17 of type II (22 %) and 4 of type III (5 %). Cranial sonographic results were normal in 36 cases (47 %) and abnormal in 41(53 %). Forty-eight cases of nonspecific causes and 29 cases of perinatal and acquired causes accounted for associated conditions. The echogenicity of LSV had not changed in 21 of 23 follow-up cases. Neurologic examinations were performed in 18 cases and in 14 of these (78 %) there was no neurologic sequela. CONCLUSION: LSV in basal ganglia may be associated with nonspecific neonatal conditions, in addition to well known perinatal causes.