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J Korean Radiol Soc. 1994 Oct;31(4):715-718. Korean. Original Article.
Lee BH , Kim PN , Cha SJ , Lee NS , Park CM , Kim SH .

PURPOSE: To evaluate the extrahepatic spread of peripheral cholangiocarcinoma with CT. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed CT findings of extrahepatic spread in thirty-six patients with peripheral cholangiocarcinoma confirmed adenocarcinoma at surgery(n=5) or percutaneous biopsy(n--31) without primary leion in other organs, and analysed the frequency and distribution of enlarged lymph nodes, direct invasion of adjacent solid organs, and thrombosis of major vessels. RESULTS: Among the 36 cases, enlarged metastatic lymph node was noted in twenty-four(66.7%), direct invasion into adjacent organs in six(16.7%), portal and inferior vena caval thrombosis in five(13.9%). Enlarged lymph nodes were seen in hepatic nodes(n=16, 44.4%), portocaval nodes(n=15, 41.7%), interaortocaval nodes (n=10, 27.8) and celiac nodes in two(5.6%). Direct invasion was detected in the greater omentum(n=6), gallbladder(n:3) and stomach(n=2). Portal vein thrombosis(n:5) and thrombosis of inferior vena cava(n=2) were noted. CONCLUSION: Lymph node metastasis was seen in 67% in patients with peripheral cholangiocarcinoma. Direct invasion to adjacent organs and thrombosis in portal vein or inferior vena cava were occasionally associated.

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