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J Korean Radiol Soc. 1994 May;30(5):953-959. Korean. Original Article.
Shinn KS , Chung HJ , Kim OH , Kim NA .

PURPOSE: Congenital limb anomalies are manifested in various degree of severity and complexity bearing confusion for description and nomenclature of each anomaly. We retrospectively analyzed the roentgenograms of congenital limb anomalies for the purpose of further understanding of radiologic manifestations based on the embryonal defect and also to find the incidence of each anomaly. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Total number of the patients was 89 with 137 anomalies. Recently the uniform system of classification for congenital anomalies of the upper limb was adopted by International Federation of Societies for Surgery of the Hand (IFSSH), which were categorized as 7 classifications. We used the IFSSH classification with some modification as 5 classifications;failure of formation of parts, failure of differentiation of parts, duplications, overgrowth, and undergrowth. RESULTS: The patients with upper limb anomalies were 65 out of 89(73%), lower limb were 21(24%), and both upper and lower limb anomalies were 3(4%). Failure of formation was seen in 18%, failure of differentiation 39%, duplications 39%, overgrowth 8%, and undergrowth in 12%. Thirty-five patients had more than one anomaly, and 14 patients had intergroup anomalies. CONCLUSION: The upper limb anomalies were more common than lower limb. Among the anomalies, failure of differentiation and duplications were the most common types of congenital limb anomalies. Patients with failure of formation, failure of differentiation, and undergrowth had intergroup association of anomalies, but duplication and overgrowth tended to be isolated anomalies.

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