BACKGROUND: This randomized, controlled study was designed to compare the effects of recruitment maneuvers (RMs) with a 15 cmH₂O positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) on the systemic oxygenation and lung compliance of patients with healthy lungs following robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy (RALP). METHODS: Sixty patients undergoing a RALP with an intraoperative 15 cmH₂O PEEP were randomly allocated to an RM or a Control group. The patients in the RM group received a single RM through the application of a continuous positive airway pressure of 40 cmH₂O for 40 s 15 min after being placed in the Trendelenburg position. The arterial oxygen tension (PaO₂, primary endpoint) and the pulmonary dynamic and static compliances (secondary endpoints) were measured 10 min after the anesthetic induction (T1), 10 min after establishment of the pneumoperitoneum (T2), 10 min after establishment of the Trendelenburg position (T3), 10 min after the RM (T4), 60 min after the RM (T5), and 10 min after deflation of the pneumoperitoneum in the supine position (T6). RESULTS: The intergroup comparisons of the PaO₂ showed significantly higher values in the RM group than in the Control group at T4 and T5 (193 ± 35 mmHg vs. 219 ± 33 mmHg, P = 0.015, 188 ± 41 mmHg vs. 214 ± 42 mmHg, P = 0.005, respectively). However, the PaO₂ at T6 was similar in the two groups (211 ± 39 mmHg vs. 224 ± 41 mmHg, P = 0.442). Moreover, there were no statistical differences between the groups in the dynamic and static compliances of the lungs at any time point. CONCLUSIONS: The arterial oxygenation of the patients with a healthy lung function who had undergone a RALP with intraoperative 15 cmH₂O PEEP was improved by a single RM. However, this benefit did not last long, and it did not lead to an amelioration of the lung mechanics.