Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is one of the most serious complications associated with anticancer drugs. CIPN leads to a lower quality of life and dysfunction of the sensory, motor, and autonomic systems, and often causes patients to discontinue chemotherapy. It is usually misdiagnosed and undertreated due to a lack of consensus and unclear pathophysiology, for which many mechanisms have been suggested, including mitochondrial dysfunction, various pain mediators, abnormal spontaneous discharge in A and C fibers, and others. To date, no agents have been shown to effectively prevent CIPN, leading to debate as to the standard protocol. Duloxetine has demonstrated a moderate therapeutic effect against CIPN. Although tricyclic antidepressants (such as nortriptyline or desipramine), gabapentin, and a topical gel containing baclofen (10 mg), amitriptyline HCL (40 mg), and ketamine (20 mg) showed inconclusive results in CIPN trials, these agents are currently considered the best options for CIPN treatment. Therefore, further studies on the pathophysiology and treatment of CIPN are needed.