BACKGROUND: Chronic low back pain (CLBP) has a significant effect on quality of life and imposes a great economical burden on society. In a number of studies, validated questionnaires had been given to CLBP patients to determine their health-associated quality of life, sleep disturbance, and psychological status. However, such outcome studies had not been performed previously in Korea. METHODS: We used self-report questionnaires to compare CLBP patients with an age- and sex-matched healthy control group. Between September 2012 and August 2013, we enrolled 47 patients who had CLBP for more than 3 months (group P) and 44 healthy age- and sex-matched controls (group C), who completed the following self-report questionnaires: 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). RESULTS: The scores from the ODI, BDI, and BAI were significantly higher in group P than in group C. The SF-36 scores were significantly lower in group P than in group C, suggesting lower quality of life in group P. The incidence of depression and anxiety was significantly higher in group P than in group C. However, neither the PSQI score nor the incidence of sleep disturbance was significantly different between the groups. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with CLBP showed considerable functional disability and significant impairment of psychological status with a low quality of life. Hence, it is important to evaluate CLBP patients to provide adequate psychological support.