Peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM) is defined as the onset of acute heart failure without any demonstrable cause in the last trimester of pregnancy or within the first 6 months after delivery. It is characterized by ventricular dilatation and poor ventricular contractility but it is often unrecognized because the symptoms of normal pregnancy commonly mimic those of mild heart failure. The incidence varies from 1 in 1,300 to 1 in 15,000 pregnancies. We encountered a patient, who developed sudden pulmonary edema during an elective cesarean section. Echocardiography performed after the surgery showed a low ejection fraction (20%). The patient was treated with diuretics and inotropic agents and mechanical ventilation with positive end-expiratory pressure. She was discharged uneventfully on the postoperative 11th day.