Since the first report appeared in 1979, the incidence of potentially life threatening allergic reactions to latex has increased. We performed Cesarean section on a 28 yr old women who showed a severe latex allergic reaction that induced fetal distress. In the 39 th week of pregnancy, delivery was induced with oxytocin and a vaginal examination was performed using latex gloves. Chest tightness, dyspnea, urticaria, maternal hypotension (78/50 mmHg) and fetal bradycardia (40-90 beats/min) appeared suddenly 10 min after the vaginal examination. In addition to the subcutaneous injection of 0.3 mg epinephrine, diphenhydramine 45.5 mg and dexamethasone 4 mg was administered intravenously. Anesthesia was induced with thiopental and succinycholine, and maintained with isoflurane and epidural lidocaine. After operation, no additional problems were evident, except an itching sense. Potentially life threatening allergic reactions to latex should be considered in those with a high risk of latex allergy, and efforts should be made to provide this group with a latex-free environment.