BACKGROUND: Target Controlled Infusion (TCI) is designed to achieve a predicted target blood concentration based on population pharmacokinetics and it provides the closest approximation for any individual patients. This study determined which target is appropriate for propofol induction using a TCI in korean adullt patients premedicated with midazolam. METHODS: Sixty six patients (ASA I or II, 18~55 years) premedicated with midazolam were allocated randomly to receive an infusion to achieve and maintain a target blood concentration of 3, 4, 5 and 6 microgram/ml using a TCI. Induction time was measured as the interval from the start of the infusion to loss of verbal contact and induction within 3 min was considered as successful. Calculated concentration, induction dose, context sensitive decrement time, vital signs, pain score and side effects were checked and compared each other during induction period. RESULTS: The success rate when the target was 3 microgram/ml was 25%, 58.8%, 77.8% and 100% when targets were 4 microgram/ml, 5 microgram/ml and 6 microgram/ml respectively. EC50 for induction was 3.87 microgram/ml and EC95 was 5.71 microgram/ml. Calculated concentration, induction dose, context sensitive decrement time in 3, 4, 5 microgram/ml group showed no differences among groups, but 6 microgram/ml group showed statistically significant differences compared with other groups. Vital signs, pain score and side effects showed no differences among groups. CONCLUSIONS: Target concentration of 5~6 microgram/ml would successfully induce anesthesia in the majority of patients premedicated with midazolam without major hemodynamic changes.