Pneumothorax was recognized as a potential hazard of mechanical ventilation shortly after the introduction of the technique of tracheal intubation in the 19th century. Because the gases used in anesthesia are delivered from cylinders and wall outlets at higher than atmoshperic pressure, the possibility of damage to the lung is ever present. Immediate, prompt and adequate management of bilateral tension Pneumothorax are essentil, otherwise the patient dies rapidly. We had a case of bilateral tension Pneumothorax in a 3 year-old boy who underwent a B-E amputation of a severely crushed hand. We report this case along with a review of the literature on Pneumothorax.