PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to identify the level of distress and posttraumatic growth in fathers of chronically ill children and also, to identify the relation between characteristics of the fathers and children and their posttraumatic growth and to investigate factors that influence posttraumatic growth. METHODS: In this study, 48 fathers who visited a university hospital in Seoul, Korea and who gave written consent completed the questionnaire between September 23 and November 19, 2013. Data were analyzed using Mann-Whitney U test, Kruskal-Wallis test, Pearson correlation coefficient and stepwise multiple regression. RESULTS: The level of distress in fathers of chronically ill children was relatively high and the majority of them were experiencing posttraumatic growth. Models including the variable (deliberate rumination, religiousness, optimism) explained 64.3% (F=26.38, p <.001) of the variance for posttraumatic growth. Deliberate rumination (beta=.59, p <.001) was the most influential factor. CONCLUSION: The findings demonstrate that it is essential for nurses to intervene and facilitate continuously so as to promote posttraumatic growth and relieve distress in fathers of chronically ill children. Furthermore, it is also necessary for nurses to find ways to develop ideal interventions to activate deliberate rumination and offer spiritual care and help maintain optimism in these individuals.