PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of the Thera-Band exercise program following total knee arthroplasty. METHODS: The research design for this study was a nonequivalent control group non-synchronized design. Participants were 30 patients for the experimental group and 30 patients for the control group. The experimental group participated in the Thera- Band exercise program in addition to conventional CPM (continuous passive motion) exercise. The control group received conventional CPM exercise only. Outcome measures were pain, knee flexion range of motion, CRP, and psychological parameters (self-efficacy and fear of falling). Data were analyzed using chi2-test, Fisher's exact test, t-test, and repeated measure ANOVA with SPSS/PC version 21.0. RESULTS: There were significant improvement in self-efficacy, and decreases in pain, and fear of falling in the experimental group compared to the control group. However, no significant differences were found between the two groups for CRP and knee flexion ROM. CONCLUSION: The Thera-Band exercise program gave an additional benefit over the conventional CPM exercise for patients following total knee arthroplasty, and is recommended for use as an effective nursing intervention for patients after total knee arthroplasty.