PURPOSE: This study was conducted to develop a self-management program using goal setting for patients after a stroke. The program was based on a theory-based Goal setting and Action Planning framework (G-AP), and the effectiveness of the program was examined. METHODS: A non-equivalent control group pretest-posttest design was used. The experimental group (n=30) received the self-management program using goal setting based on the G-AP over 7 weeks. The education was delivered individually with a specifically designed stroke workbook. The control group (n=30) received only patient information leaflets about stroke. RESULTS: There were significant differences between the two groups. Stroke knowledge, self-efficacy, and health behavior compliance were significantly higher (all p<.001), and hospital anxiety (p<.001) and depression (p<.001) were significantly lower in the experimental group compared to the control group. CONCLUSION: This self-management program using goal setting based on a G-AP was found to be useful and beneficial for patients in stroke rehabilitation settings.