PURPOSE: This study was done to propose and test a predictive model that would explain and predict fall prevention behaviors in postmenopausal women. The health belief model was the theoretical basis to aid development of a nursing intervention fall prevention program. METHODS: Data for 421 postmenopausal women were selected from an original data set using a survey design. The structural equation model was tested for 3 constructs: modifying factors, expectation factors, and threat factors. Expectation factors were measured as relative perceived benefit (perceived benefit minus perceived barrier), self-efficacy, and health motivation; threat factors, as perceived susceptibility (fear of falling) and perceived severity (avoiding activity for fear of falling); and modifying factors: level of education and knowledge about fall prevention. Data were analyzed using SPSS Windows and AMOS program. RESULTS: Mean age was 55.7 years (range 45-64), and 19.7% had experienced a fall within the past year. Fall prevention behaviors were explained by expectation and threat factors indicating significant direct effects. Mediating effect of health beliefs was significant in the relationship between modifying factors and fall prevention behaviors. The proposed model explained 33% of the variance. CONCLUSION: Results indicate that fall prevention education should include knowledge, expectation, and threat factors based on health belief model.