PURPOSE: This study was done to assess the bone mineral density (BMD), biochemical bone turnover markers (BTMs), and factors associated with bone health in young Korean women. METHODS: Participants were 1,298 women, ages 18-29, recruited in Korea. Measurements were BMD by calcaneus quantitative ultrasound, BTMs for Calcium, Phosphorus, Osteocalcin, and C-telopeptide cross-links (CTX), body composition by physical measurements, nutrients by food frequency questionnaire and psychosocial factors associated with bone health by self-report. RESULTS: The mean BMD (Z-score) was -0.94. 8.7% women had lower BMD (Z-score< or =-2) and 14.3% women had higher BMD (Z-score< or = 0) than women of same age. BTMs were not significantly different between high-BMD (Z-score> or =0) and low-BMD (Z-score<0) women. However, Osteocalcin and CTX were higher in women preferring caffeine intake, sedentary lifestyle and alcoholic drinks. Body composition and Calcium intake were significantly higher in high-BMD. Low-BMD women reported significantly higher susceptibility and barriers to exercise in health beliefs, lower bone health self-efficacy and promoting behaviors. CONCLUSION: Results of this study indicate that bone health of young Korean women is not good. Development of diverse strategies to intervene in factors such as exercise, nutrients, self-efficacy, health beliefs and behaviors, shown to be important, are needed to improve bone health.