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J Korean Acad Nurs. 2014 Oct;44(5):504-514. Korean. Original Article.
Park YJ , Lee SJ , Shin NM , Shin H , Kim YK , Cho Y , Jeon S , Cho I .
College of Nursing, Korea University, Seoul, Korea.
Department of Home Economics Education, College of Education, Korea University, Seoul, Korea.
Department of Laboratory Medicine, College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul, Korea.
Department of Nursing, Graduate School, Korea University, Seoul, Korea.

PURPOSE: This study was done to assess the bone mineral density (BMD), biochemical bone turnover markers (BTMs), and factors associated with bone health in young Korean women. METHODS: Participants were 1,298 women, ages 18-29, recruited in Korea. Measurements were BMD by calcaneus quantitative ultrasound, BTMs for Calcium, Phosphorus, Osteocalcin, and C-telopeptide cross-links (CTX), body composition by physical measurements, nutrients by food frequency questionnaire and psychosocial factors associated with bone health by self-report. RESULTS: The mean BMD (Z-score) was -0.94. 8.7% women had lower BMD (Z-score< or =-2) and 14.3% women had higher BMD (Z-score< or = 0) than women of same age. BTMs were not significantly different between high-BMD (Z-score> or =0) and low-BMD (Z-score<0) women. However, Osteocalcin and CTX were higher in women preferring caffeine intake, sedentary lifestyle and alcoholic drinks. Body composition and Calcium intake were significantly higher in high-BMD. Low-BMD women reported significantly higher susceptibility and barriers to exercise in health beliefs, lower bone health self-efficacy and promoting behaviors. CONCLUSION: Results of this study indicate that bone health of young Korean women is not good. Development of diverse strategies to intervene in factors such as exercise, nutrients, self-efficacy, health beliefs and behaviors, shown to be important, are needed to improve bone health.

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