PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to construct and test a structural equation modeling on burnout of clinical nurses based on CS-CF model. METHODS: A survey using a structured questionnaire was conducted with 557 clinical nurses. Data were analyzed using structural equation modeling. RESULTS: The modified hypothetical model yielded the following chi2=289.70, p<.001, RMSEA=.09, GFI=.93, TLI=.91, CFI=.94, PCFI=.65, AIC=363.21, SRMR=.05 or less and showed good fit indices. Nursing work environment, patient safety culture and resilience showed indirect effects on burnout while compassion fatigue and compassion satisfaction had direct effects. CONCLUSION: Results of this study suggest that compassion fatigue must be decreased and compassion satisfaction has to be increased, while burnout is lowered by enhancing the clinical nursing work environment, patient safety culture and resilience. In addition, more variables and longitudinal studies are necessary to validate the clear cause-and-effect relationship between the relevant variables.