PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of anorexia and neuropathic pain induced by cisplatin on hindlimb muscles of rats. METHODS: Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into two groups, a cisplatin-treated group (n=10) and a control group (n=10). In the cisplatin-treated group, cisplatin at a dose of 2 mg/kg was injected intraperitoneally two times a week up to a cumulative dose of 20 mg/kg over 5 weeks, and in the control group saline (0.9% NaCl) was injected intraperitoneally at the same dose and duration as the cisplatin-treated group. At 34 days all rats were anesthetized, after which the soleus and plantaris muscles were dissected. Withdrawal threshold, body weight, food intake, activity, muscle weight, Type I and II fiber cross-sectional areas and myofibrillar protein content of the dissected muscles were determined. RESULTS: Compared with the control group, the cisplatin-treated group showed significant decreases (p<.05) in withdrawal threshold, activity, food intake, body weight, Type I and II fiber cross-sectional areas, myofibrillar protein content and weight of the soleus and plantaris muscles. CONCLUSION: Muscular atrophy in hindlimb occurs due to anorexia and neuropathic pain induced by the cisplatin treatment.