PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine effects of decreased locomotor activity on mass, Type I and II fiber cross-sectional areas of ipsilateral and contralateral hindlimb muscles 21 days after establishing the Parkinson's disease rat model. METHODS: The rat model was established by direct injection of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA, 50 microgram) into the left substantia nigra after stereotaxic surgery. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to one of two groups; the Parkinson's disease group (PD; n=17) and a sham group (S; n=8). Locomotor activity was assessed before and 21 days after the experiment. At 22 days after establishing the rat model, all rats were anesthetized and soleus and plantaris muscles were dissected from both ipsilateral and contralateral sides. The brain was dissected to identify dopaminergic neuronal death of substantia nigra in the PD group. RESULTS: The PD group at 21 days after establishing the Parkinson's disease rat model showed significant decrease in locomotor activity compared with the S group. Weights and Type I and II fiber cross-sectional areas of the contralateral soleus muscle of the PD group were significantly lower than those of the S group. CONCLUSION: Contralateral soleus muscle atrophy occurs 21 days after establishing the Parkinson's disease rat model.