PURPOSE: This study was designed to test structural equation modeling of the quality of life of stroke survivors in order to provide guidelines for development of interventions and strategies to improve their quality of life. METHODS: The participants in the study were patients who visited the neurology outpatient department of a tertiary hospital in Seoul between June 25 and October 15, 2009. Data collection was carried out through one-on-one interviews. Demographic factors, functional independence, social support, nutritional status, post-stroke biobehavioral changes and quality of life were investigated. RESULTS: The final analysis included 215 patients. Fitness of the hypothetical model was appropriate (chi-square=111.5, p=.000, GFI=.926, AGFI=.880, RMSA=.068, NFI=.911, CFI=.953). Functional dependency, social support and post-stroke biobehavioral changes were found to be significant explaining variance in quality of life. Post-stroke biobehavioral changes had the strongest direct influence on quality of life. Nutritional status had an indirect effect on the quality of life. CONCLUSION: To improve the quality of life of stroke survivors, comprehensive interventions are necessary to manage post-stroke biobehavioral changes, and strengthening social support networks that can contribute to enhancing the quality of life of stroke survivors.