PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to compare levels of postpartum fatigue, depression, childcare stress, and maternal identity according to postpartum period between primiparas who used Sanhujori facilities and those who did not. METHODS: The research design was a longitudinal descriptive study using self-report questionnaires. Participants were 55 healthy primiparas who delivered at one of 3 hospitals in Chungnam, 21 using Sanhujori facilities and 34 not using these facilities during the first three weeks after childbirth. Data were collected from October 2008 to April 2009 at three measurement points, 2-4 days after childbirth (T1), 4-6 weeks (T2), and 12-14 weeks (T3). Data were analyzed using the SPSS 17.0 WIN program. RESULTS: There was a significant difference in childcare stress between the two groups at 4-6 weeks after childbirth. Postpartum depression and childcare stress at 4-6 weeks were significantly higher than those of the other postpartum periods, while maternal identity was significantly lower. CONCLUSION: Child care stress is the most important issue among women who use Sanhujori facilities and the 4-6 week period after childbirth is very difficult to primiparas. These results indicate that nursing interventions for primiparas in Sanhujori facilities should focus on reducing childcare stress. Furthermore proper follow-up programs at 4-6 weeks are needed to decrease the difficulties in adjustment by new mothers.