PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to identify the factors which influence health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in Korean Medicaid beneficiaries. The relationships among sociodemographic factors, health status, health behavior, and HRQoL were analyzed METHODS: Data from the 2007 survey on Health Services Use and Health Status of Medicaid Beneficiaries conducted by the Ministry for Health Welfare and Family Affairs were examined. To analyze the sample survey data, descriptive statistics, correlation and hierarchical multiple survey regression analysis with SAS 9.1.3 package were used with SURVEYMEANS and SURVEYREG procedures, which incorporate the sample design into the analyses in order to make statistically valid inference for the whole Medicaid population. RESULTS: The HRQoL correlated with limitations in Activities of Daily Living (ADL) (r=-.509, p<.001), stress (r=-.387, p<.001), depression (r=-.385, p<.001), alcohol consumption (r=.216, p<.001), and exercise (r=.293, p<.001). Significant factors that affect HRQoL of Medicaid beneficiaries were gender, region, limitations in ADL, stress, depression, alcohol consumption, and regular exercise. These variables explained 44.6% of HRQoL (F= 215.00, p<.001). CONCLUSION: The results indicate that to improve the HRQoL of Medicaid beneficiaries it is important to develop nursing intervention programs that focus on psychological health and health behavior and to give consideration to differences in gender and region.