PURPOSE: This study was conducted to understand the degree of vitality, meaning in life and self-efficacy and to elucidate the factors influencing this vitality in the nurses of Korea. METHOD: A cross-sectional survey of nurses from 4 hospitals was conducted by convenience sampling. Data collection was conducted through the use of questionnaires which were constructed to include a Vitality Self Test, Purpose in Life Test and Self-efficacy Scale. RESULTS: The degree of vitality in nurses was in the middle range. The nurses of this study had few goals towards meaning in life, and an existential vacuum state. A positive relationship was found between vitality and the research variables. The significant predictors influencing vitality in nurses were meaning in life, self-efficacy, and clinical career, and these variables accounted for 28.7% of the variance in vitality. CONCLUSIONS: This results support that vitality is an important link with meaning in life and self-efficacy. There should be a comprehensive study in the future for in-depth understanding of the vitality of nurses.