PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to identify the influencing factors of mother-infant attachment and construct a descriptive model that explains mother-infant attachment during the early postpartum period. METHOD: The hypothetical model of this study consisted of 8 variables with 23 constructed paths. The subjects of this study were 152 postpartum women. Data was analyzed to test the hypothetical model using covariance structure analysis. RESULT: The final model which is modified from the hypothetical model improved to Chi-Square 41.92, GFI .95, AGFI .89, RMSR .02, RMSEA .06, NFI .94, and NNFI .95. Mother-infant attachment during the early postpartum period was proven to be influenced directly by neonatal perception, maternal sensitivity, and maternal-fetal attachment and also indirectly by social support, maternal-fetal attachment and maternal identity. These variables accounted for 32% of the variance of the mother-infant attachment during the early postpartum period. CONCLUSION: It is necessary that the nurses provide postpartum women with an intervention using social support for improving maternal identity and alleviating maternal role strain. It can be helpful to improve maternal sensitivity and in the end it will facilitate the mother-infant attachment during postpartum period.