PURPOSE: This study was to evaluate the effects of a physical activity reinforcement program on exercise compliance, depression, and anxiety in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis(CAPD) patients. METHOD: A nonequivalent control group with a pre-post test was designed. Data collection was done from December, 2002 to June, 2003 at a hoapital. The degree of depression and anxiety of the patients was assessed by the score of SCL-90-R, and exercise compliance was measured by exercise period, frequency, time and intensity. The experimental group was composed of 19 participants who were educated based on an exercise education protocol and carried out walking exercises two to four times a week after hearing verbal persuasion biweekly through the telephone or a face-to-face interview for 12 weeks, while 17 participants in control group received no intervention. RESULT: 1. The experimental group showed significant improvement in self-efficacy of exercise compliance (U=79.00, p=.01), exercise period (x2=20.84, p=.00), exercise frequency (x2=9.03, p=.01), exercise time (x2=9.03, p=.01) and exercise intensity (x2=11.09, p=.00) compared to those of the control group. 2. The experimental group showed a lower depression score (U=84.50, p=.01) than the results of the control group. 3. However, there were no changes in anxiety level compared to the control group. CONCLUSION: The physical activity reinforcement program was found to have an effect on exercise compliance and the depression score of CAPD patients. The results provided evidence for the importance of physical activity and verbal persuasion in CAPD patients.