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J Korean Acad Nurs. 2000 Dec;30(7):1645-1657. English. Comparative Study.
Yoo H .
Division of Nursing Science, School of Medicine, Ajou University, Suwon, Korea.

Twenty-three research studies regarding nurses or nursing students intention to care for HIV disease patients were reviewed. Studies on this issue were sporadic and not systematic. A majority of the studies were limited to one institution at one point in time. Convenience sampling was prevalent. Only 5 studies used random sampling (Jemmott III et al., 1992; Kelly et al., 1988; Planter & Foster, 1993; Scherer et al., 1989; Van Servellen et al., 1988). Consequently the findings of most studies can not be generalized to the population at large. In addition, between 1985 and 1994, the emphasis on descriptive studies continued even though correlational and experimental studies were being conducted. The development of the body of knowledge on this issue is still in a primitive stage. Correlational or comparative studies reviewed rarely had a theoretical basis for the study questions. Only two studies were found that cited a theoretical basis (Laschinger & Goldenberg, 1993; Goldenberg & Laschinger, 1991). A variety of attitude instruments were developed by investigators and used in their own studies. The constructs of the instruments were quite varied. For example, some studies identified fear as the attitude to be measured, while others measured opinion or intention as the attitude. None of the studies reviewed reported content, construct or convergent validity of the instruments. Reliability data for most instruments used in the studies were either not reported or low. Such a lack of information limits the interpretation of the findings. Study findings were inconclusive. Some descriptive studies indicated that nurses or nursing students were willing to care for HIV disease patients, while others revealed they were not willing to do so. Three correlational studies examining the relationship between attitude and intention obtained inconsistent findings. Findings from one study (Jemmott et al., 1992) indicated a positive relationship, while others found no relationship between them (Cole & Slocumb, 1994; Jemmott et al., 1992). Descriptive studies identified that families or friends stigmatization were the important factors. Only two correlational studies on this issue were found, but study findings were inconsistent (Laschinger & Goldenberg, 1993; Glodenberg & Laschinger, 1991). Studies focusing on nursing students intentions or attitude were limited. Only 7 of the 23 research reviewed were conducted using nursing students (Lawrence & Lawrence, 1989; Lester & Beard, 1988; Mueller et al., 1992; Oerman & Gignac, 1991; Jemmott et al., 1992; Jemmott III et al., 1992; Wiely et al., 1988). This review leads to the conclusion that there is a need for study of this issue with nursing students as the target population. Studies with questions based upon a theoretical framework provide a basis for linking findings. In addition, reliable instruments and sophisticated statistical analysis are also needed when studying this topic.

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