This study is to define the caring experience of mothers with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus children, by finding core category, contextual factors, intervening factors, and the patterns of caring, and to develop a practice theory on it. Research method followed grounded theory methodology by Strauss and Corbin. Subjects were six mothers, whose children have had insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus for 4 months to 14 years by the interview time. They were selected by theoretical sampling. Data were collected from September, 1995 to January, 1996. Interview were done by long interview took 50 minutes to 2 hours. Content of interview was recorded and transcribed later. Based on the results of previous interview, content of next interview was planned until data reached to the saturation point. Results were as follows : One hundred and forty concepts were found. These concepts were grouped into thirty-three categories, and then to ten categories. Mothers with diabetic child were revealed to face "being overwhelmed by burden". Overwhelming by burden is found to be progressed through the cycle production-coping-decrease or in crease process. Mothers showed four patterns of adaptation in caring the diabetic children. 1) If mothers felt large amount of overwhelming by burden because of difficulty of caring and unsympathizing but they had sufficient support, no condition of the child, and their coping mechanism was positive, most of them overcome with strong will, but some fell into burnout. 2) If mothers felt large amount of overwhelming by burden because of difficulty of caring, unsympathizing, insufficient support, serious condition of the child, and their coping mechanism was negative, they fell into burnout by coping with feeling. 3) In mothers felt small amount of overwhelming by burden because of little difficulty of caring and sympathizing, sufficient support, no serious condition of the child, but their coping was negative, most of them fell into burnout by coping with feeling, but some overcome. 4) If mothers felt small amount of overwhelming by burden because of little difficulty of caring and unsympathizing, sufficient support, no serious condition of the child, and their coping was positive, they overcome with strong will. On the basis of the above result, in order to help mothers take good care of their children, nursing assesment and intervention on life readjustment, and getting support should be required. Especially, through understanding mothers' personalities, individual support consistent with each of them should be required. Therefore education, counseling, mutual support and exchange of information will have to be accomplished.