BACKGROUNDS/AIMS: The hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype affects clinical outcomes of HCV infection, in terms of the response to antiviral therapy and progression of chronic liver diseases, and shows geographic differences in distribution. The aim of this study was to elucidate the HCV genotypes in patients with chronic HCV infection in Jeju, which is an island off the Korean peninsula. METHODS: The study population consisted of 162 patients with anti-HCV antibodies and HCV-RNA. HCV genotypes were determined using genotype specific primers. RESULTS: HCV genotype 2a predominated (62.3%), followed by genotype 1b (34.0%) and 2b (3.7%). The prevalence of genotypes differed significantly with age, with HCV genotypes 1 and 2 being more frequent in older and younger subjects (P=0.035), respectively. HCV-RNA levels were higher in patients with genotype 1 than in those with genotype 2 (P=0.001). HCV genotype was not significantly related to sex, clinical diagnosis and potential risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: HCV genotype 2a is most common in Jeju, followed by genotype 1b. Our results suggest that the distribution of the HCV genotype differs between regions in Korea.