BACKGROUND: Over the past 20 years, significant advances have been made in human islet transplantaiton. However, cases of prolonged insulin independence after islet allotransplantation have rarely been reported and over time, a slight, gradual decrease in insulin secretion appears to occur, as suggested by the lower C-peptide. Although preliminary clinical success achieved over the past few years has been considerably higher with whole pancreatic transplant than with isolated islet grafts, both approaches remain experimental. Islet grafts might gain, over time, increasing credibility and might eventually provide an easier alternative in terms of grafting procedures and patient management, as compared with the more "traumatizing" whole-pancreas transplantation. Also, using islet, re-tran- splantation is possible. But it is not known whether re-transplantation of islet could be suitable for those patients who lost grafted islet function. The aim of the present study was to investigate the benefits of re-transplantation of islet in previously simultaneous islets-kidney transplant(SIK) patient who have lost graft function. METHODS: The recipient was a 32 year old male. First islet transplantation was underwent at December 25, 1999. However, the grafted islets lost function after 70 days. So we performed re-transplantation of islets. The isolation of islet was conducted sterilely on a laminar flow hood and isolated by a modified Recordi method. The islet was injected slowly into the liver via a cannular placed in the potal vein for 20 minutes. RESULTS: Transplanted islets were 90,000 IEq at first islet transplantation, 370,000 IEq at second islet transplantation. The insulin requirement was reduced from 75-85 to 35-40 U/day, the basal C-peptide level was 1.5 ng/mL at 7 days posttransplant Unfortunately, the grafted islets lost function after 70 days. After second transplantation, the insulin requirement was reduced to 26 U/day. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the continuous need for exogenous insulin therapy, islet transplantation can prevent wide glucose fluctuations, thus resulting in norma lization of glycemic control and improvement in HbA1c, and also, show that islets can be successfully and safely re-transplanted intraportally in patients who have lost previously grafted islet function (J Kor Diabetes Asso 457~466, 2000).