Acute eosinophilic pneumonia is a severe and rapidly progressive lung disease that can cause fatal respiratory failure. Since this disease exhibits totally different clinical features to other eosinophilic lung diseases (ELD), it is not difficult to distinguish it among other ELDs. However, this can be similar to other diseases causing acute respiratory distress syndrome or severe community-acquired pneumonia, so the diagnosis can be delayed. The cause of this disease in the majority of patients is unknown, even though some cases may be caused by smoke, other patients inhaled dust or drugs. The diagnosis is established by bronchoalveolar lavage. Treatment with corticosteroids shows a rapid and dramatic positive response without recurrence.