Malignant rhabdoid tumors arise primarily from the kidney. Extrarenal malignant rhabdoid tumors are rare, with the liver, central nervous system, and skin reported as the primary sites. Malignant rhabdoid tumors of the mediastinum are extremely rare among extrarenal malignant rhadoid tumors; only 3 cases have been reported to date, all characterized by aggressive clinical behavior. We experienced a 35-year-old woman diagnosed with malignant rhabdoid tumor in the anterior mediastinum with multiple metastases. The tumor was surgically unresectable, and treated with palliative radiation therapy. Three-month after radiation treatment, she died from dissemination of the malignant rabdoid tumor.