Endobronchial actinomycosis is a rare chronic suppurative granulomatous infection of the bronchus, and this is sometimes related with a foreign body or a broncholith. The traditional treatment of endobroncial actinomycosis is intravenous antibiotics for 2 to 6 weeks and then oral antibiotics therapy for 6 to 12 months. We report here on 2 cases of endobronchial actinomycosis that were associated with a broncholith and a foreign body, respectively. Surgery followed by short term antibiotics therapy for only 20 days and 34 days, respectively, was effective as treatment for the endobronchial actinomycosis in our cases. After treatment, there were no complications or recurrence during the following period. We suggest that short term antibiotics therapy combined with a surgical operation might be effective as treatment for primary endobronchial actinomycosis, and especially when this illness is combined with a foreign body or a broncholith, as compared with traditional long term antibiotic therapy.