BACKGROUND: This study was aimed at preparing basic data required for establishment of a cancer screening program by evaluating the screening rate and related factors in rural and urban areas. METHODS: The study population of 2,157 respondents was selected by a random cluster sampling method in one rural area (Gun) and one urban area (Gu). The subjects answered the structured questionnaire. The Andersen model was used to evaluate the related factors. RESULTS: The results by proportions of the study population who had received cancer screening tests in the last three years were 8.9% for stomach cancer, 10.5% for hepatic cancer, 4.5% for colorectal cancer, 46.3% for cervical cancer and 16.0% for breast cancer. Application of Andersen model revealed that sex, age, education level, economic status, knowledge and alcohol drinking for stomach cancer; sex age, knowledge alcohol drinking, and smoking for liver cancer; sex, age, education level, marital satus, knowledge, alcohol drinking, and smoking for colorectal cancer; age, eucational level, marital status, area, economic status and attitude for cervical cancer; age, area, attitude and family history for breast cancer were significant. CONCLUSION: These results could be used to develop a program that facilitates change of community people's knowledge and attitude and practice of health behavior.