BACKGROUND: The relation of initial depression and weight loss in a low calorie diet(LCD) alone or exercise combination in Korean wamen, was considered and change of emotional state after program was determined in this study. METHODS: Sixty obese females were randomly prescribed a LCD(low calorie diet) alone or a LCD with exercise. Thirty obese females were treated with a LCD of 1,000kcal/d for 8weeks(group A). Another thirtyt obese females were treated with a LCD of 1,000kcal/d combined with supervised aerobic exercise for 8 weeks(group B). Questionnaires including Korean-translated Beck Depression Inventory(BDI), Korean- translated Brief Encounter Psychosocial Instrument(BEPSI) were reported before and after 8weeks fo this study. RESULTS: 21 out of 30 obese females in group A and 25 out of 30 obese females in group B completed the study. At the eighth week, mean weight loss was 5.7+/-2.2kg(8.0%) in group A, and 6.8+/-1.7kg(9.5%) in group B. Depression were decreased after program(decreased BDI score in combined group(6.86+/-6.31: p = 0.0001), group A(5.79+/-4.06:p=0.0001) and group B(7.68+/-7.58:p=0.0001), but no statistically significant difference between group A and B was noted(p=0.3309). Initial BDI score was negatively correlated with the percent of weight loss in group A(r =-0.659: p=0.0012). But initial BDI score was not correlated with the percent of weight loss in group B(r =0.099: p=0.637). In group A and B, the percent of weight loss was not correlated with change of BDI score. In group A and B, the change of BDI score was positively correlated with the initial BDI score(group A;r=0.504:p=0.028, group B;r=0.762:p=0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Regardless of the exercise combination, LCD therapy seemed to decrease diepression. The degree of weight loss was negatively correlated with initial degree of depression. this negative correlation can be compensated by planned thorough exercise.