Root resorption of the permanent maxillary incisors can occur due to ectopic eruption of the permanent canines. Severe root resorption threatens the long-term survival of the affected incisors. The aim of the present study was to identify risk factors for root resorption of the maxillary incisors associated with impacted maxillary canines. In the present study, we retrospectively analyzed the Cone-Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) scans of 65 children and adolescents with ectopically erupting maxillary canines (total of 88 impacted canines). Root resorption of central incisors was significantly associated with the mesiodistal position and root development of the adjacent canine. Root resorption of lateral incisors was significantly associated with sex, age, and the buccolingual and vertical position of the adjacent canine. However, enlargement of the dental follicle was not significantly associated with root resorption of adjacent incisors. Although incisor resorption is difficult to diagnose and predict, our findings suggest that changes in the dental follicles of the erupting maxillary canines do not cause resorption of the adjacent permanent incisors. CBCT should be utilized to ensure early diagnosis of impacted canines and precise evaluation of incisor root resorption.