BACKGROUND: Although safe and effective, a wide array of complications of esophageal stent placement continues to pose a significant challenge to clinicians in providing optimal care for their patients. METHODS: To identify factors associated with migration of self-expandable metal stent (SEMS) used in treating malignant and benign disease of esophagus, a retrospective study analyzing 105 cases (85 patients) of esophageal SEMS placement between January 2013 and June 2015 was conducted. All cases were performed in a single tertiary referral center. The key outcomes of interest were SEMS migration rates based on indication, stent type, design, and endoscopic findings prior to SEMS placement. Technical success rate, other major adverse outcomes and subgroup analysis of interest were also performed. RESULTS: Overall esophageal SEMS migration rate was 26.7%. Significantly higher rates of stent migration were associated with fully covered stent use (38.1% vs 9.5%, P = 0.001) and stent use in benign conditions (43.9% vs 15.6%, P = 0.002). Our multivariable analysis also showed statistically significant increased risk of migration for SEMS placement in distal esophagus (P = 0.006). CONCLUSIONS: This study validated some of previously reported predictors of stent migration. In addition, stent use in benign esophageal disease was found to be a significant risk factor of SEMS migration. Large, prospective studies are necessary to further clarify modifiable risk factors to reduce the rate of SEMS migration.