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Gastrointest Interv. 2016 Mar;5(1):15-21. English. Review. https://doi.org/10.18528/gii150009
Angsuwatcharakon P , Rerknimitr R .
Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University and King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand.
Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University and King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand. ercp@live.com
Abstract

Iatrogenic perforation of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract is one of the serious complications in GI endoscopy. With the advancement in technique of GI endoscopy especially therapeutic endoscopy, the risk of perforation has increased. Prompt detection is the only way to avoid delay treatment and poor outcome. Recently, there are new instruments and techniques developed that can be reliably applied for an endoscopic closure without the need for surgery. Therefore, endoscopists should be familiar with these instruments as the result of successful endoscopic closure has lower rate of morbidity than surgery. In this review, the techniques of endoscopic closure are described according to the organs of perforation. In addition, the general knowledge and management of perforation in other aspects including tension pneumothorax, abdominal compartment syndrome, or infection induced by contamination of GI content are explained.

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