A 7-year-old, spayed female, domestic short hair cat showed signs of a 2-week history of chronic anorexia, depression, and severe weight loss. Upon physical examination, pyrexia, mild gingivitis, and pale mucus membranes were noted. Laboratory analysis revealed normocytic normochromic non-regenerative anemia, severe thrombocytopenia, and hypergammaglobulinemia. Serum protein electrophoresis revealed the presence of elevated alpha-2 fraction within the globulin concentration. Based on history, clinical signs, and laboratory results, systemic viral infection was strongly suspected. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction identified the presence of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) in the serum. Furthermore, gene sequencing revealed the virus as FIV subtype A. Treatment with anti-retroviral agents, including azidothymidine (AZT) and recombinant human interferon-alpha, was continued for 4 weeks. However, the patient's clinical condition deteriorated, resulting in death 1 month after initiation of treatment due to progressive renal failure. Necropsy and histopathology revealed hepatic and renal necrosis with hyper-cellular bone marrow mainly comprised of myeloid precursor cells. This case report is the first to describe phylogenetic subtyping, anti-retroviral combination treatment, and clinical outcomes in an FIV-infected cat in Korea. In addition, this report suggests that treatment should be initiated during the early phase of infection that could be effective for the virus.