The current study was conducted to evaluate the biocompatibility of alpha-1,3 galactosyltransferase knockout pig bone graft in a rat calvarial defect model. Porcine cancellous bones were harvested from general and alpha-gal KO pigs and washed with 70% ethanol solution and normal saline. Bone pieces of the alpha-gal KO pig underwent a chemical treatment process to delipidize and deproteinize the bone. Bone graft particles were freeze-dried and stored at -70degrees C until use. Each bone graft was implanted into the rat calvarial defect in a fresh general pig, fresh transgenic pig, and chemical-treated pig bone group. There was no systemic adverse effect on hematology or necropsy findings in all groups at 1 week and 4 weeks. In the microcomputed tomography analysis, bone volume increased significantly in the chemical-treated transgenic pig bone group, whereas bone mineral density decreased significantly in the fresh general pig bone group compared with other groups. Histological evaluation showed cellular infiltration located at the margin of the bone graft particles, especially in the fresh general pig bone group. These results indicate that fresh general pig bone can elicit a greater local inflammatory response than fresh transgenic pig bone. Further, chemical-treated transgenic pig bone graft was less immunogenic than fresh bone graft. In conclusion, transgenic pig bone is a more biocompatible graft material. In addition, chemical treatment can reduce bone graft immunogenicity by delipidizing and deproteinizing bone.