Craniocerebral gunshot injuries (CGI) are increasingly encountered by neurosurgeons in civilian and urban settings. Unfortunately this is a prevalent condition in developing countries, with major armed conflicts which is not very likely to achieve a high rate of prevention. Management goals should focus on early aggressive, vigorous resuscitation and correction of coagulopathy; those with stable vital signs undergo brain computed tomography scan. Neuroimaging is vital for surgical purposes, especially for determine type surgery, size and location of the approach, route of extraction of the foreign body; however not always surgical management is indicated, there is also the not uncommon decision to choose non-surgical management. The treatment consist of immediate life salvage, through control of persistent bleeding and cerebral decompression; prevention of infection, through extensive debridement of all contaminated, macerated or ischemic tissues; preservation of nervous tissue, through preventing meningocerebral scars; and restoration of anatomic structures through the hermetic seal of dura and scalp. There have been few recent studies involving penetrating craniocerebral injuries, and most studies have been restricted to small numbers of patients; classic studies in military and civil environment have identified that this is a highly lethal or devastating violent condition, able to leave marked consequences for the affected individual, the family and the health system itself. Various measures have been aimed to lower the incidence of CGI, especially in civilians. It is necessarily urgent to promote research in a neurocritical topic such as CGI, looking impact positively the quality of life for those who survive.