PURPOSE: This study was conducted to investigate the correlation between degrees of health promotion behaviors and life satisfaction and effects of health promotion behaviors on life satisfaction in rural elderly women living alone. METHODS: A descriptive correlation study was conducted with 189 rural elderly women living alone aged 65 or older in four senior counties in Jeollanam-do. Descriptive statistics, t-test, ANOVA, Scheffé test, Pearson's correlation, and multiple regression. RESULTS: The subjects' health promotion behaviors and life satisfaction were significantly positive. Among the factors influencing the subjects' life satisfaction, nutrition and diet showed the greatest positive effects, followed by exercise and activity, and drinking and smoking. Among them, drinking and smoking had significantly negative influence. CONCLUSION: Among the health promotion behaviors that influenced life satisfaction, nutrition and diet, exercise and activity, and drinking and smoking were most significant factors. Therefore, this study provided basic data for improving the life satisfaction among rural elderly women living alone.