PURPOSE: This study was conducted to examine the degree of senile macular degeneration in elders aged 65 or older and identify factors associated with senile macular degeneration in elders within communities. METHODS: Participants in this cross-sectional descriptive study were 388 elders without cataract, glaucoma, and diabetic retinopathy. Data were collected through face to face interviews using a questionnaire in an urban area from June 2010 to December 2011. To detect senile macular degeneration, the participants' self-tests were carried out with Amsler grid testing. Stepwise multivariate logistic regression was performed to evaluate the effects of health behavior and knowledge about eye health on senile macular degeneration. RESULTS: The proportion of participants with senile macular degeneration was 11.6%. Factors that significantly increased the risk of senile macular degeneration included eye discomfort and history of ophthalmic examination (p<.05). Factors that significantly decreased the risk of senile macular degeneration included regular change of magnifiers, non-use of magnifiers, and knowledge about preventive effects of non-smoking and antioxidant vitamin intake on senile macular degeneration (p<.05). CONCLUSION: This study showed that programs for preventing senile macular degeneration were necessary for elders within communities and the results of this study can be used for developing those programs.