PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of an overweight control exercise program on body composition and blood lipids. METHOD: This comparative study was conducted at an elementary school in Seoul, Korea. Pre and post body weight, BMI, PBF, and obesity degree as body composition and TC, HDL-C, LDL-C, and TG as blood lipids were tested. The aerobic exercise lasted 12 weeks from April to July, 2006. A total of 168 overweight 3rd grade to 5th grade school children attended and were divided into a walking exercise group (n=68) and a rope jumping exercise group (n=38). Data were analysed using SAS 8.12. RESULT: At the end of the program, the participation rate was higher in the rope jumping exercise group than in the walking exercise group. Body weight, BMI, PBF, obesity degree, TC, and LDL-C were lower than those before the program, and HDL-C was higher than before the program. CONCLUSION: The school-based overweight control exercise program was effective. Because of the participation rate was higher in the rope jumping exercise group than in the walking exercise group, rope jumping exercise is recommended for low grade children.