OBJECTIVES: This study investigated changes in gene expressions concerning of differentiation, proliferation, mineralization and inflammation using Human-8 expression bead arrays when white Mineral Trioxide Aggregate and calcium hydroxide-containing cement were applied in vitro to human dental pulp cells (HDPCs). MATERIALS AND METHODS: wMTA (white ProRoot MTA, Dentsply) and Dycal (Dentsply Caulk) in a Teflon tube (inner diameter 10 mm, height 1 mm) were applied to HDPCs. Empty tube-applied HDPCs were used as negative control. Total RNA was extracted at 3, 6, 9 and 24 hr after wMTA and Dycal application. The results of microarray were confirmed by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: Out of the 24,546 genes, 43 genes (e.g., BMP2, FOSB, THBS1, EDN1, IL11, COL10A1, TUFT1, HMOX1) were up-regulated greater than two-fold and 25 genes (e.g., SMAD6, TIMP2, DCN, SOCS2, CEBPD, KIAA1199) were down-regulated below 50% by wMTA. Two hundred thirty nine genes (e.g., BMP2, BMP6, SMAD6, IL11, FOS, VEGFA, PlGF, HMOX1, SOCS2, CEBPD, KIAA1199) were up-regulated greater than two-fold and 358 genes (e.g., EDN1, FGF) were down-regulated below 50% by Dycal. CONCLUSIONS: Both wMTA and Dycal induced changes in gene expressions related with differentiation and proliferation of pulp cells. wMTA induced changes in gene expressions related with mineralization, and Dycal induced those related with angiogenesis. The genes related with inflammation were more expressed by Dycal than by wMTA. It was confirmed that both wMTA and Dycal were able to induce gene expression changes concerned with the pulp repair in different ways.