The aim of this study was to compare the effects of anticurvature filing with stainless steel k-file versus nickel-titanium ProFile in the shaping of mesial root canals of extracted mandibular molars. A total of 60 canals from 30 mesial roots of mandibular molar teeth were randomly assigned to three groups with n=20 each. They were prepared with different instruments and methods: The first group with stainless steel k-file and circumferential filing, the second with precurved stainless steel k-file and anticurvature filing and the third with ProFile (.06 taper) and anticurvature filing. Using a micro-computed tomography system (skyscan-1076, SKYSCAN, Antwerpen, Belgium), pre-and post-operative specimens were scanned. Subsequently, canal images were superimposed and changes in root dentin thickness were measured at distal side (danger zone) of the canal. The data was analyzed using a one-way ANOVA and the comparison of means was conducted using a post hoc multiple comparison Tukey test. There were significant differences in the change of root dentin thickness at the 7.5~8.5mm level between group 1 and 2, 3.5~6mm level between group 1 and 3 and 3.5~6mm level between group 2 and 3(n=20, P<0.05).